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Overview  

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) collects, processes and dispenses satellite imagery for national security purposes. This imagery is used to depict the planet’s physical features or activities that are being monitored by the intelligence community. The agency, which is a part of the Department of Defense, also supports combat troops with tactical data, such as targeting information for precision bombing.

 
History  

Official U.S. mapping and charting efforts arguably began in the early 1800s, with the Lewis and Clark expedition. World War I, however, revolutionized these efforts, ushering in an era of battlefield intelligence obtained through aerial reconnaissance. This transformation matured during the Second World War, and the Cold War helped institutionalize it. In 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered secret surveillance flights over the Soviet Union using U-2 airplanes; at the same time, the United States was developing its first system of reconnaissance satellites for use against the USSR. To help process the information obtained from these satellites, Eisenhower created the National Photographic Interpretation Center in 1961.
 
Multiple reorganizations of the federal government’s mapping and charting operations followed. First, the armed forces combined all their mapping agencies into one outfit, dubbed the Defense Mapping Agency, in 1972 (see Memorandum link below). In 1996, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (PDF) authorized Congress, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense to unite their mapping and charting offices, creating the National Imagery and Mapping Agency. NIMA combined both intelligence and combat-support operations in one entity.
 
On Nov. 24, 2003, President George W. Bush signed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (PDF). The act enabled NIMA to rename itself the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. “This name change is more than cosmetic; it represents the latest in a series of major steps to provide the nation’s war fighters and senior policy-makers with the best intelligence available to support decision making,” wrote Tom Cooke, NIMA deputy chief of public affairs, in the 2003 State of the Agency (PDF) publication.
 
Agency’s Name Changes, But Mission Continues (by Rudi Williams, American Forces Press Service)

NGA History

(PDF)

 

What it Does  

The collection and analysis of satellite imagery is called geospatial intelligence, or GEOINT for short. This imagery may be used in a number of ways:
  • The NGA and the U.S. Geological Survey worked together to determine the extent of damage to the site of the former World Trade Center, following the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks
  • The agency provided the military, government and humanitarian groups with satellite imagery of areas decimated by Hurricane Katrina
  • Map data has been used to settle border disputes, including a generations-long feud between Peru and Ecuador
  • Map data of St. Louis was provided to the Secret Service in 1999 so it could make security arrangements for a visit by Pope John Paul II
  • Warplanes rely on the NGA for precision bombing and navigation maps
  • The agency instructs satellites to spy on rogue states and terrorist groups
 
The NGA director also manages the National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG), which coordinates intelligence activities for the many entities that rely on NGA services. The NGA director reports to both the national intelligence director and the secretary of defense.
Seminar on Intelligence, Command and Control (by Roberta E. Lenczowski, NIMA) (PDF)
 
The NGA is headquartered in Bethesda, MD, with additional offices in St. Louis; Reston, Va. and the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, D.C. The agency will move all of its eastern operations to one site, at Fort Belvoir in Fairfax County, VA, by Sept. 15, 2011.

New Campus East

 

Where Does the Money Go  

Former NGA Director James R. Clapper Jr., who served from 2001 to 2006, oversaw the privatization of much of the NGA’s imagery gathering. The agency now relies heavily upon commercial vendors of satellite imagery, such as DigitalGlobe and GeoEye.
 

Business Opportunities

 

Controversies  

Photographing Inside the U.S.
 
Bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade
The CIA claimed to have used a flawed NIMA map for targeting the Yugoslav Federal Directorate of Supply and Procurement during the NATO bombing campaign of 1999. Four precision bombs struck the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, killing three and wounding nearly two dozen.
Nato Bombed Chinese Deliberately: Nato hit embassy on purpose (by John Sweeney, Jens Holsoe and Ed Vulliamy, The Guardian)
Time and Peace (by Stephanie Faul, Mappa Mundi)
Chinese Embassy Bombing: A Wide Net of Blame (by Steven Lee Meyers, New York Times)
 
Indian Nuclear Test: Caught by Surprise
The United States was reportedly taken by surprise when India tested its first nuclear weapon in 1998, despite the fact that NIMA analysts had been instructed to monitor the supposed test site closely.
CIA had a meagre presence in India (by Chidanand Rajghatta, Indian Express)
 
Marine Corps Pilot Kills 20 on Italian Ski Lift
A Marine Corps jet pilot struck an Italian ski lift in 1998, killing 20 people. An investigation showed that his NIMA-produced navigation map didn’t indicate that the lift existed.

Ski Lift Where 20 Died is not Shown on Map Used by U.S. Pilot

(by John Tagliabue, New York Times)

 

Debate  

Some say the NGA’s mission lost focus when it assumed responsibility for providing both intelligence and military tactical information. “It creates a corporate culture that does not encourage challenging prevailing views and wisdom,” former CIA photo analyst Patrick Eddington told CNN. “And that is absolutely death. It guarantees intelligence failures.”
 
Criticism - from the Left

The corporate takeover of U.S. intelligence: The U.S. government now outsources a vast portion of its spying operations to private firms -- with zero public accountability.

(by Tom Shorrock, Salon)

 

Suggested Reforms  

Some suggest that the NGA’s intelligence and combat-tactics functions be separated (see Debate above). Others take issue with confusing lines of budgetary and appointment authority exercised by the secretary of defense and the national intelligence director over the NGA.

 

You Call That a Reform Bill? (by Fred Kaplan, Salon)

 

Congressional Oversight  

House Select Intelligence Oversight Panel of the Committee on Appropriations

 

Former Directors  

James R. Clapper (2001-2006)

 

 

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Table of Contents

Founded: 2003 (with forerunners dating back to 1961)
Annual Budget: Classified
Employees: Classified

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Murrett, Robert
Previous Director
Vice Admiral Robert B. Murrett received his bachelor’s degree in history from the University of Buffalo. He then received two master’s degrees: one in government from Georgetown University, and the other in strategic intelligence from the Defense Intelligence College.
 
After leaving the Defense Intelligence College in 1980, Murrett, who had been commissioned as a Navy lieutenant shortly after receiving his bachelor’s, was assigned as a watch stander and briefing officer for Navy leaders. In 1983, he began a two-year stint as an assistant intelligence officer for the commander of the Second Fleet, participating in deployments aboard the USS Mount Whitney and the USS Nassau. He moved to Oslo, Norway, in 1986, serving as assistant naval attaché to the U.S. embassy for three years. In 1989, he was reassigned as operational intelligence officer under the commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. He followed that up in 1992 with three years of service as assistant chief of staff for the commander of a Navy carrier group.
 
In 1995, Murrett became assistant chief of staff for the commander of the Second Fleet. Between 1997 and 1998, he worked with the chief of naval operations staff as executive assistant to the director of naval intelligence. In September 1998, he became director of the Intelligence Directorate in the Office of Naval Intelligence. Almost one year later, he moved on to become commander of the Atlantic Intelligence Command. Between Aug. 10, 2000, and Jan. 25, 2002, he served as director for intelligence for the U.S. Joint Forces Command. Six days after leaving that post, he became vice director for intelligence on the Joint Staff, remaining in that position until March 2005. He then served as director of naval intelligence from April 1, 2005, until July 6, 2006.
 
President Bush nominated Murrett to replace retired Air Force Lt. Gen. James Clapper Jr. as director of the NGA in June 2006. The Senate confirmed him on June 29, and he took control of the agency July 7.
 
 
 


 
 
 
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